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National Project Terminals MAP

National Project of Terminals Refining, Processing and Packaging of Agricultural and Horticultural all products the method of MAP

Objectives Packing:

 The most important objective in the packaging of food is expected to increase the shelf life of the product. Packaging material by setting the appropriate space in the pack due to keeping the characteristics of that increases the shelf life of the product. In the case of coordination between the characteristics of the packaging and product maintenance needs should be provided. Another purpose of the packaging is intended to improve the transportation, warehousing and delivery of the product. Today, with advances in technology and mass production without the use of packaging products, wholesale or retail product offerings in the market are not allowed. It seems that despite the additional cost for the manufacturer imposes Bndyyk pack, but you must consider the total cost of production without the use of packaging is wasted. Products must be delivered in packages of one or two portions if needed to be used. This is especially important in the case of export products.

Attractive package in terms of the appearance pack and market-friendly, it is also very important. This aspect of the wrap in some cases, the purpose of its use are covered.

While conscious manufacturer, should avoid this risk,Why investments too much on this aspect of packaging, Not only can not be successfully market but it also causes the failure.

This should always be done at the level of investments coordinated with the contents within package, either economically or from the information this placed to the consumer.

Packing, good act and provide information to the information that the manufacturer is required, the consumer end. In this way compliance with laws and regulations in the food industry are helping.

Presenting the information may be made directly or indirectly. Insert information such as consumption product instructions, ingredients manufacturer, and its nutritional value, shelf life, expiry date product directly to do will.

While some data directly using the color used in the design of the package or Abbreviations, which are internationally accepted will be transferred to the consumer.

However, consumers are seeing color green in the package, it will feel good about innocuous.

Some colors for some products have been accepted internationally. For Example: brown or golden origin coffee or cocoa products.

Food packaging:

In many cases a compromise between the needs of the food product maintenance and packaging material is composed of packing materials or Multi Layer Packaging Material be used.

Because the a packaging layer alone is not able to set the desired requirements, provide.the aid consists of packaging material used.

The selection of the different layers that are used in product packaging is one of the important issues in addition to its barrier than oxygen, light and moisture permeability of volatile compounds than is. Especially in the case of products such as coffee, spices and vegetables, etc., which are identified by their characteristic flavor.

Means packing material must also protect the aromatic compounds, aromatic and flavor compounds influence the product also prevents undesirable.

This material may enter the product 3 is:

  1.  In effect, decomposition the package
  2.  via influence of additive compounds packing material
  3.  the environment around for packaging
  4. The most important features of that the choice of packaging material consideration include:

lack of adverse interaction between the product and the packaging:

In this case the food product on the packing material and packing material effect on the product is considered to be mutual. Different ways of packaging material can cause adverse effects on the product:

A) via transfer of its constituent monomers that are free of polymeric material and as a result, the process of forming the heat released by thermal decomposition.

Transmission of free monomers in the product caused the poisoning of the product. on the other side, the transfer of chemical additives to improve the properties of packaging materials are used,

Is introduced into the product, which if has exceeded in a packaging material transfer will cause poisoning.

In this case you can use the soft compound or Plasticizer noted that in the case of a polymeric material is used Vingl chlorile or PVC.

The packaging material is a hard film to be produced. The film not have the flexibility and resilience of the film must be considered in cases where the combination of additives used.

The among the compounds are aromatic compounds, which are carcinogenic. on the other side, the manufacturer of hollow monomer, Means PVC or VC, is transferred to the product and it is also carcinogenic.

So basically, the use of PVC, due to the adverse effects on the packaging of food is very limited.

B) transfer of product composition and its effects on packaging material is also important.

  In such cases, the packaging material must be attributed to the composition of the reaction product, is resistant. one topic    that received considerable attention in recent years due to the effects of that the products are packed in boxes 4 corner  laminated called Tetra brik or Terta Pack happen.

Research has shown that acid composition on the packaging of the product can be affected.

This type of packing, 5 layer is formed. The layers from the inside out, as follows:

Polyethylene layer adjacent to the product, aluminum foil, polyethylene layer, cardboard and then eventually polyethylene layer adjacent to the air.

Each of the layers are made of a special purpose:

Polyethylene inner layer, the first and second feature film, foil and unreacted product of thermal Sewing


1 -Layh aluminum foil to prevent the presence of light used.

2. The middle layer polyethylene is used to prevent the presence of light.

  3-layer polyethylene middle barrier role is firstly, and secondly, the adhesive cardboard and aluminum foil.

4. The strength cardboard packaging and printing capabilities to provide

5. polyethylene outer layer, printed on cardboard protects, and makes it shiny.

2) Another feature that should be carefully chosen packaging material

  The mechanical properties of packaging material Means resistance perforation of the collision and impact.

3) The thermal resistance material the package

Many food products, after processing, in the form of heat inside the package are entered, as well as many products as ready for consumption and production , only when consumers need to re-heat for heating the final there. Therefore, Thermal resistance material the package is important.

4) low weight for packing material

This is particularly important in terms of transport and the main features and advantages of polymeric materials on metals and glass from the point is considered.

5) In terms of the ability to view the contents within package and attractive appearance of this package it is desirable.

However, from the standpoint of food crop sensitivity to light in many cases it is necessary. Packaging material, the type is selected from the adverse effects of light on the food product inhibition. In this case, usually package on the color of the pigment or metabolize closed precipitation of aluminum on material packaging or by using a separate layer of aluminum foil besides the original packaging material, will assist.

Type of Packaging:


A) LDPE, low-density polyethylene

B) HDPE; high-density polyethylene

Although These two polymers have the same chemical formula, but it features a collection of point applications is quite different.

LDPE: usually in the form of a flexible thin film is used. Two important features, the wider use of it, especially in the food packaging industry causes include:

 1) its neutrality, ie lack of reaction with product

2) The ability to tailor the thermal

For this reason it is necessary to packaging maximize a few layers, the inner layer and in direct contact with the product

The thin film of LDPE is used. This film is transparent and permeable to light.

So in some cases need to be used with aluminum foil.

Application of LDPE packaging Tetra Pack in sterilized milk and juice,

Pure Pack for packaging milk and yogurt, Terry Peck for packaging bags, three-layer and five-layer for pasteurized milk is sterile.

HDPE: This is a hard polymer material of high strength and good barrier properties and the lack of transparency it is used.

Typical use of HDPE, types of bottle is inhibitory to improve the penetration of light, white (titanium dioxide) is added to it.

2) polypropylene:

 In 3 types, summarized:

 A) Plan, P.P simple

 The door to all kinds of plastic bottles are used. For the production of PP bottles are also used in some cases.

B) Biorient, P.P linearized

This material during the manufacturing process under tensile force in the direction perpendicular to disrupt, inserted, resulting in a transparent thin film with more suitable barrier properties can be produced, packing chips, snacks, pasta, peanut and totally Snack Foods, appropriate is.

C) Pearlized Borient P.P

 This film, thin film flexible white pearl, a good replacement. Paper in packaging for chocolate cakes, soup powder is used to partially cover the oil stains and the point of application of such products is higher.

3) (PET) Poly ethylene terephthalate

The packaging for beverage bottles, liquid oil is used and the specific way shape makes this type of bottle:

First, the transparency of the bottle, and second, it features superior barrier against penetration of gases, and the third bottle of lightweight and high mechanical strength, are provided.

Of this polymer material is also used as a thin film on the PET film package provides the necessary strength. Examples of such products are packaged fruit juice and Goldis Sandys that in this case the layers of packaging material is as follows:


4) (P.S) Poly Styrene

This material, a simple and transparent and fragile, and for the production of disposable containers or trays, is used, while certain types of polystyrene, is resistant to impact, the production of polystyrene, a type of plastic that is used to name HIPS resistance the impact will be.

Of this type for the production of containers, yogurt and jam single use. Another type is called polystyrene bulkier Foomeel Poly Styren is sometimes also called the Expanded.

  The packaging material in the production process, the fugitive gases are used, which leads to expansion of polymer, and creating a package hollow cells in tissue is polymer material. such contexts: first, the impact on the product, do not transfer, so it is suitable for fragile products such as: eggs. Second, good thermal insulation and heating products is appropriate.

 Thirdly lightweight of polymer material, it is often more convenient transportation.

5) Nylon

Nylon, in meat products such as sausages, salami widely used, similarly, polyamide along with Polyethylene, vacuum packaging fresh meat and cheese are widely used.

6) (PVDC) Poly Vinily dene choloricle

The polymer material, the inhibitory properties, the influence of gases and humidity, the best type of polymer. very thin film that can provide the necessary barrier. Flexibility is very good.

The reason for packing meat products specifically for packaging meat wholesale, widely used. in other words, vacuum packaging, the kind of film that adheres perfectly to the product surface of the polymer material used.

Given the importance of non- oil exports in the economy, the problems in the supply and good access to the international markets, the artisans have been more than before clear.

One of the largest and most important of these problems, the method of packaging, which can all aspects product protection, ease of transport, displacement, and attractions to affect sales development.

Given that, the most important effect of packaging, increase shelf life and increase the shelf life of the product, which increases the chance of competing in the market, and taking advantage of most opportunities for the product delivery, the customer.

Another important effect of packaging is the following: the removing of waste products in the packaging process, resulting in further reducing product waste, and removing the possibility of becoming part of the operation more profitable products.

Many factors cause the loss of value of the food that they can be microbial corruption, change the molecular structure, the loss of some important properties such as vitamins and so on.

The newest method of packaging in the world, packaging with MAP (modified atmosphere) is, over 9 years old in the world, and for 6 years in Iran, many researchers and investigators, several studies it has done every year on the main priority research projects is an academic and ministerial studies.

In fact packaging, modified atmosphere the method of a combination of 3 types of gas (nitrogen - carbon monoxide -  Carbon dioxide) Confirmation that the health of the World Health Organization (in Belgium) was taken in 2001, and several studies have on the content and composition of the individual products was undertaken.

One of the main purposes of the change of atmosphere packaging, as a replacement, to maintain products by freezing and reducing energy consumption, without any negative effects on product quality during warehousing and Sell.

Some of the advantages of modified atmosphere packaging as follows:

 1-prolonging shelf life and quality products while maintaining the desired properties quality (increasing exports)

2- avoid the problem of product shrinkage (reducing the amount of volume and mass) (value added products)

3. drastic reduction and sensible, the amount of waste and corruption (reducing imports)

4. keep the product fresh, without the use of preservatives or irradiation (society Health)

5-harvesting fresh Products, the desired at the consumer (reducing waste)

6. Reduce transport costs by providing added storage period (reduced price)

 7. Provide cut products ready for consumption (saving time)

8. Do not use the heating and cooling processes (energy savings)

In Iran, the Ministry of Agriculture, according to statistics, every year more than 35% of agricultural products, at different stages is destroyed. Such waste can, under modified atmosphere packaging, minimized.

Given the numerous research and activities been conducted on the potential of agricultural and horticultural crops each province, due to the high number density of waste products and national products, the design in phase 6 is applicable to the type of product.

For downloading file, project comprehensive feasibility study, click on the following link:

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    Reports, the comprehensive research, feasibility National

 (Terminals refining, processing, packaging and export of agricultural and horticultural products the method of MAP)


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